Graphic, by US Gen Net

Generation 1
BERNARD (m. Anne Bretolene Rouergue)

Generation 2
PIERRE (m. Marguérite de l’Isle de St. Aignan)

Generation 3
JEAN (m. Jeanne de Saint-Lary de Bellegard)

Generation 4
JEAN-LOUIS (m. Marguérite de Foix-Candale)

Generation 5
BERNARD (m. Gabrielle-Angélique de Verneuil)

Photo, public sign for town of Nogaret
French road sign for Nogaret, France


The Nogaret lineage extends back through hundreds of years of French nobility to one ANDRÉ NOGARET born in 1307.

I haven’t been able to isolate any information about André Nogaret. More prominent, however, was Guillaume de Nogaret and I found quite a bit of information on him. He was born about the middle of the 13th century at St. Felix-en-Lauragais, and died in 1314. He was one of the chief counselors of Philip the Fair, of France (1285-1314), said to be descended from an Albigensian family and was a protégé of the lawyer, Pierre Flotte. He studied law, winning a doctorate and a professorship, and was appointed, in 1294, royal judge of the seneschal's court of Beaucaire. In 1299 the title of Knight was conferred on him by Philip the Fair. There is more to be read about him, and if you are interested, click: Guillaume de Nogaret (Catholic "New Advent").


The VALETTE family had been an important one in France for many generations, various members having accompanied the Kings of France in the First, Second, Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Crusades.

Photo, public sign for town of Nogaret

Generation 1

BERNARD DE NOGARET DE LA VALETTE was born 1478 in Toulouse, France. He married ANNE BRETOLENE ROUERGUE, born in 1480.

Bernard died after 1497 in France. Anne Bretolene Rouergue died in 1530.

Acacia hand graphic


  1. PIERRE DE NOGARET DE LA VALETTE (1497-1553). He married Marguerite de L'Isle de St. Aignan (1499-1535).

Photo, public sign for town of Nogaret

Generation 2

PIERRE DE NOGARET DE LA VALETTE was born in Toulouse in 1497.

He married, in 1521, MARGUÉRITE DE L’ISLE-JOURDAIN, dame de Saint-Aignan et Casaux. She was born in 1498 at Condomois, France.

She and her husband were seigneurs of Cazaux-Savés and Caumont.

Pierre was a military man, a Captain of Arms, who fought in the Italian Wars.

Marguérite died after 1535 at Caumont, France.

Acacia hand graphic

He died in 1553 at Caumont, Toulouse, France.


  1. Bernard de Nogaret de La Valette, Seigneur de Coppadel (1521-?).

  2. Gabrielle de Nogaret de La Valette (1523–1548).

  3. Pierre de Nogaret de La Valette (1525–1545).

  4. JEAN DE NOGARET DE LA VALETTE (1527–1575). He married, in 1551, Jeanne de St-Lary de Bellegarde.

Photo, public sign for town of Nogaret

Generation 4

JEAN DE NOGARET DE LA VALETTE was born in 1527 at Caumont-Guienne. He was a Lieutenant General of France.

Jean married on 15 September 1551, JEANNE DE SAINT-LARY DE BELLEGARDE, the daughter of Perroton (or Pierre) de St-Lary, Baron de Bellegarde and Marguérite d’Orbessan. He was at that time the Governor of Haute-Guyenne.


Jean died in battle at the Siege of La Rochelle (1572-1573).



  2. Bernard (or Bertrand) de Nogaret de la Valette (d. 1592); marr. Jeanne, the dtr. of René de Batarnay.

  3. Catherine de Nogaret de la Valette (about 1566-1587). She married, on 28 November 1581 (at the age of 15), Henri de Joyeuse (1563-1608), the comte du Bouchage.

    Portrait, Catherine de Nogaret de la Valette
    Catherine de Nogaret de la Valette

    Portrait, Henri de Joyeuse, comte du Bouchage
    Henri de Joyeuse, comte de Bouchage

    Prior to her death, they had made a pact that, after one of them died, the remaining one would enter religious service. Catherine died on 12 august 1587 in Paris, France, after which Henri joined the religious order of Capuchins.

    A good PDF article about Catherine and Henri is at: Une Statue de Catherine de Nogaret (in French).

    Catherine’s Daughter
    Henriette Catherine de Joyeuse

    Catherine and Henri’s one daughter, Henriette Catherine de Joyeuse, born on 8 January 1585, would now be raised by her paternal grand-mère, Marie de Batarnay. Ten years later, she was back with her father after Marie’s death in 1595.

    On 15 May 1597, Henriette Catherine married Henri de Bourbon, Duke of Montpensier. The wealth in the Montpensier family was stupendous. The duke died in February of 1608. Henriette then became the duchess of Joyeuse from 1608 and was so until 1647.

    Catherine’s Grand-daughter
    Marie de Bourbon, Duchess of Montpensier

    Marie de Bourbon (1605-1627), married Gaston Jean Baptiste de France, duc d'Orléans.

    Catherine’s Great Grand-daughter
    Anne Marie Louise, Duchess of Montpensier

    A.K.A. ‘la Grande Mademoiselle’.

    Mademoiselle always had a great sense of her own self importance and when asked about her maternal grandmother (Henriette Catherine de Joyeuse), she replied that she was not her grandmother because she was "not a queen". I can’t imagine what she would have thought of her great-grandmother, Catherine de Nogaret de la Valette!

    See also a good Wikipedia article: Anne Marie Louise, Duchess of Montpensier

    After the death of Henri de Bourbon, Henriette Catherine married again, Charles of Lorraine, 4th Duke of Guise, on 6 January 1611, by whom she had ten children. Henriette was princesse of Joinville from 1641 to 1654. She died on 25 February 1656. (Wikipedia).

    For more good online articles about Henri and Catherine, and their children and descendants, see below, under Online Resources.

  4. Hélène de Nogaret de la Valette (b. 1568). She married, in 1582, Jacques de Goth, marquis de Rouillac.

  5. Anne-Marie de Nogaret de la Valette (1570-1605) married, in 1583, Charles of Luxembourg (1567-1608), comte de Brienne.

Photo, public sign for town of Nogaret

The First Duc d'Épernon
Generation 3


JEAN-LOUIS DE NOGARET DE LA VALETTE, Pair (peer) de France, comte de Montfort et de Candale, marquis de La Valette, Amiral de France, was born in 1554 at the Château de Caumont in Languedoc, France, about 40 km west of Toulouse. The family portraits and genealogy are housed at the château. For more on the family properties, see my page:

Épernon Châteaux

Jean-Louis first acquitted himself by saving his father's life when the horse his father was riding was killed from under him. He attributed his outstanding character and standard of honor "to the safe and solid counsel from his mother Madame de la Valette, at Caumont."


Jean-Louis Nogaret de la Valette fought on the Catholic side during the French Wars of Religion, (1562-1598). I put together a more-detailed page on the:

French Wars of Religion

It was during his service in the Wars of Religion where he was noticed by the Duc d'Anjou, the future King Henri III of France. By 1578, Jean-Louis had been accepted into King Henri III's most intimate circle of favorites, commonly called les Mignons. To read more about the Épernons and their kings, click my page on:

The Kings and the Dukes

In 1581, King Henri sold him the town of Épernon, at the same time raising it to the rank of a duchy thus creating Nogaret the first duc d'Épernon.

Village of Épernon (Wikipedia)


In addition, as one of Henri's mignons, the king showered many favors and titles upon him:

  • 1579 - maitre de camp of the Champagne Regiment

  • 1580 - Governor of Fere

  • 1581 - Colonel-General of the infantry

  • 1582 - First Gentleman of the King's Chamber

  • 1583 - Chevalier de l'Ordre du Saint-Esprit (see below)

  • 1583 - Governor of Boulonnaise, Loches, Lyon, Metz and its surrounding areas

  • 1584 - Chevelier des Ordres du roi (see below)

  • 1586 - Governor of Provence

  • 1587 - Admiral of France, Governor of Normandy, of Caen, and of Le Havre (when the other “favorite”, the duc de Joyeuse, died).

It has been said that Épernon, was the model for the intrepid d'Artagnan in Alexandre Dumas's The Three Musketeers. I believe there have been other claims that so-and-so was also the model for d’Artagnan.


Jean-Louis de Nogaret de la Valette married MARGUÉRITE DE FOIX-CANDALE on 23 August 1587 at the Château de Vincennes. The marriage was celebrated with a magnificent ball, at which the king was present with his great chaplet of death's heads. For more on this marriage, see below, under Resources: Google Books.

Marguérite was born in 1567 and was the Captaline de Buch, comtesse de Candale, Benauges et d’Astarac. Her parents were HENRI DE FOIX-CANDALE and MARIE DE MONTMORENCY.



I’ve gathered numerous photos pertaining to both families, links to which are available on the family pages.

After Marguérite’s father was killed at Sommières in 1572, she inherited her family's possessions, including castles. This includes possessions passed to her father by his brother. These, according to the times, now became the property of her husband.

Châteaux of the duc d’Épernon

Marguérite imprisoned her sister, Françoise de Foix-Candale, dit «Madame de Candale» (d. 1649), and forced her to become a nun. One wonders why she did this: to prevent her sister from inheriting family possessions? To make sure she didn’t have to provide a handsome dowry for her younger sister? This was quite often the case with younger family members.

Marguérite de Foix-Candale died 23 September 1593 at Angoulême.

Acacia hand graphic


The year he was appointed the First Gentleman of the King's Chamber, Jean-Louis de Nogaret de la Valette, the duc d’Épernon, was also tapped as a chevalier of the Ordre du Saint Esprit, in the fifth promotion, on 21 December. He was also a Colonel General of the French Infantry.

Medallion of the Ordre
du Saint Esprit


The duc (a Catholic) was very loyal to King Henri III (also a Catholic), and was very opposed to the Protestant Henri of Navarre becoming the next king. Henri III was assassinated in 1589, and Navarre did become King Henri IV. I’ve prepared a page on the:

Assassination of King Henri III

Now Jean-Louis attempted to install an independent government in Provence, which attempt failed. The duc was obliged to submit himself to King Henri IV, which he did. But he had not forgiven or forgotten.


Hôtel des Postes (General Post Office), rue Jean Jacques Rousseau. This street was originally called rue Platrière, but in 1791 the Municipal Body decreed that it should take the name of J. J. Rousseau.

This hotel, built by the Duke d’Épernon, occupies the site of a large house belonging to Jacques Rebours, procureur de la ville in the 15th century. Barthélemi d’Hervart, comptroller-general of the finances, having succeeded to the duke, made some additions, and spared no expense to render it a magnificent habitation. It was distinguished for several works of Mignard* and Bon Boullogne. Subsequently it bore the name of d’Armenonville, till purchased by the government, in 1757, for the General Post Office.

Pierre Mignard was a French painter (1612-1695 at Paris). He found awaiting him in France the same exceptional position that he had enjoyed in Italy. Hardly had he arrived when he executed portraits of Louis XIV and other members of the royal family. His reply to detractors, who questioned his talent for great works, was the decoration of the Hôtel d'Epernon, soon followed by that of the cupola of the Val-de-Grâce.

Mignard also did portraits of Bernard de Nogaret de la Valette, the 2nd duc d’Épernon.

See Galignani’s New Paris Guide (Paris: A. and W. Galignani and Co., 1846). The front matter has a lot of very interesting information about being out and about in Paris. See pp. 230-31: 3rd Arrondissement, St. Eustache.


Jean-Louis maintained an official mistress named Diane d'Estrées. She was the sister of King Henri IV’s mistress, Gabrielle d'Estrées. I’ve prepared a special page about these sisters. Click the link:

Diane and Gabrielle d'Estrées

Family Ties That Bind

There was another family relationship between the Nogarets de la Valette and King Henri IV, involving another of the king's mistresses:

King Henri IV and his mistress, Henriette de Balzac d'Entragues, the Marquise de Verneuil, had a daughter, Gabrielle-Angélique de Bourbon (known as Mademoiselle de Verneuil), who married Bernard de Nogaret de la Valette [hereafter La Valette]. Her birth was legitimized. You will read about the d’Entragues/Verneuils below.

Also, check out my page on the relationship between the duc d’Épernon and the French kings during his lifetime:

Épernon and the Kings.


King Henri IV was assassinated in 1610. Épernon was under suspicion of complicity in the assassination; this was also true regarding others close to the king. Read the page I’ve prepared on the:

Assassination of King Henri IV


After the death in 1610 of King Henri IV, the duc played a large role in getting Henri's widow, Marie d'Medici, appointed as Regent. As a result he exercised a considerable influence upon the government.

Cardinal Richelieu, who also wanted to be in charge, found in Épernon a rival whom he could not subdue. He wanted neither Épernon nor Marie d'Medici in his way.


Épernon was named military Governor of Guienne.


In the southwest of France, where he was living so-called quietly as the Governor of Guienne, the relationship between Épernon, and Henri de Sourdis (brother and successor of Cardinal François de Sourdis), led to a public altercation in which Épernon struck Sourdis. Furious, Sourdis demanded the duc's excommunication.

Meanwhile, Cardinal Richelieu had arranged for Jean’s son, La Valette, to marry his niece, Marie du Cambout, under the pretext of bringing about a reconciliation.


Further bad feelings were engaged with Cardinal Richilieu when he believed that La Valette had been conspiring (along with his elder brother the Count de Caumont and Candale) and taking counsel from the Huguenots, and even accused them of such. This was during the Peasants' Revolt (Révolte des Croquants).


Cardinal Richelieu, life-time rivals of the old duc, wanted to rid himself of Épernon and his sons, and had put them all in the command of various sections of the army.

In 1638, La Valette, charged with leading the siege of Fontarabie, declined, yielding his post to Vice-Admiral de Sourdis who launched an ill-fated attack which resulted in heavy losses. Richelieu and the king accused La Valette of treason.

Épernon gave up his post at Guienne, and was ordered to his château at Plassac. The old duc advised La Valette not to try to come to him at Plassac.


Soon after, La Valette went into exile, and his elder brother (Count de Caumont and Candale), was stricken with a malady and died suddenly. And then, youngest brother, the Cardinal, "fell into a melancholy that put him at last into a desperate disease. The beginning of this distemper was as light as it had been in that of the Duke of Candale, his brother, and the issue of it as fatal".

A conflicting account of the cardinal’s death is that portrayed by Guizot in his Histoire de France (Vol. 4). He stated that the Pope "refused the customary funeral rights to the Cardinal de la Valette who died fighting at the head of the Army of the king."

During all this mayhem, Épernon, was still being held a virtual prisoner at his château at Plassac. When he heard of the loss of his sons, he cried, "O, Lord, since thou hast reserved my old age to survive the loss of my three children be pleased withal to give me strength wherewith to support the severity of the judgments."

Three years later, he was ordered by the King, from Plassac to Loches, a desolate, most uncomfortable castle.


Jean Louis de Nogaret de la Valette, le duc d'Épernon, died in the Château de Loches in January, 1642, at the age of 88.

Only one source states he died in the dungeon of Loches. All other sources indicate he died in the château of Loches. I’ve prepared a nice page about the place, and what it has meant to me:

Château de Loches

With him at death were his grandchildren (La Valette's children) and their step-mother, Marie du Cambout. Upon his death, his son, La Valette, became the 2nd duc d'Épernon.

Please help with translation: "Tous les titres de cette branche passent aux La Valette sous condition que leur fils aîné relève nom et armes de Foix."

Jean-Louis de Nogaret de la Valette, 1st duc d'Épernon, and his duchess, Marguérite de Foix-Candale, are buried in a private tomb in their local church, called the Collégiale Saint-Blaise in Cadillac, France. Read more about the tomb on my page:

Épernon Family Tomb.


  1. Henri, duc de Foix-Candale (1591–1639).


  3. Louis, Cardinal de Nogaret de la Valette, was born in Angoulême, France, on 8 February 1593. He was also known as Cardinal La Valette. In 1599, when he was six years old, Louis II was named abbot of Grandselve. Louis was educated in Paris at the Jesuit Collège de La Flèche and the Sorbonne University (philosophy). At twenty-and-one-half years of age, on 26 August 1613, Louis II resigned the abbey in favor of Cardinal François de Joyeuse, who ceded him the archdiocese of Toulouse in exchange. It was at this time he was appointed Archbishop of Toulouse. He died in 1639. More about him on my page: Sons of the Cloth.

    N.B. Some documents indicate that there was another son, Pierre, born in 1589. And the claim is made that Pierre's granddaughter Anne Catherine de La Valette (1653–1699) and her husband Daniel Collot-d'Escury, Seigneur de Landauran (1643–1714), are the ancestors of the American actress, Audrey Hepburn.

By Mistress Diane d'Estrées

  1. Louise.

  2. Louis. He was Bishop of Mirepoix from 1630 to 1655 and was known there as Louis de Nogaret d’Éspernon. More about him on my page: Sons of the Cloth.

  3. Bernard. Was the Prior of Bellefonds. Little more about him on my page: Sons of the Cloth.

An Interesting Side Note

The Château de Bussy-Rabutin nestles deep in a wooded combe of the Auxois region, not far from Montbard, Fontenay and Alise-Sainte-Reine. From an existing medieval castle, the Rochefort family created a country house, influenced by the early French Renaissance. Having acquired the domain of Bussy in 1602, the Rabutin family completed the reconstruction of the main block in 1649. Roger, Count of Bussy-Rabutin (1618-1693) and cousin to the marchioness, Madame de Sévigné, inherited the estate in which the interior décor required complete overhauling.

Bussy-Rabutin was part of life at the Court of Louis XIV. He had a military career, distinguished only it seems by an orgy where he sang songs ridiculing the King's affair with Marie de Mancini. Louis sent Bussy-Rabutin into exile in Burgundy, and there, accompanied by his mistress, the Marquise de Montglat, he wrote his Histoire Amoureuse des Gaules, a series of tales, partly true, about four famous ladies of the Court. For this scurrilous work, he was sent to prison in the Bastille for a year.

He was forced into exile at the château and began to surround himself with memorabilia in a 'gilded cage'. He decorated the château with hundreds of portraits of the grand figures of the royal court, each accompanied by an inscription and a motto. They evoke something of the nostalgia of an exile, banished from royal favour.

It was purchased by the French state in 1929, and is currently managed by the Centre des monuments nationaux. Further restoration has been carried out since the 1970s.

painted wooden placque

Over one hundred portraits line the walls of the portrait gallery, in chronological order, as well as ordered by rank and importance. This wonderful gallery was created by a disgraced courtier of King Louis XIV. There are French gardens and great views of the château surrounded by its moats.

Les Grandes Capitaines

Of the 65 legendary grand captains, our ancestors account for four of the portraits:

10. Anne de Montmorency, Constable of France, fought in the battle of St. Denis in 1567.

18. Jean-Louis de Nogaret, duc d’Épernon, colonel of the infantry, favorite of Henri III, one of his mignons.

30. Roger de St. Lary duc de Bellegarde, grand escuier de France, one of the best and most gallant men of his century. He was successively a favorite of Henri III, IV, and Louis XIII. He was Governor of Burgundy. Léonor de Rabutin, one of his police lieutenants, asked Roger to be the godfather of his own son, Roger.

47. Louis Gaston Charles de Nogaret, duc de Candale, colonel of the infantry. Bussy fought with him in Catalonia under the orders of the Prince of Condé. Candale had a liaison with the comtesse d’Olonne, which was written about by Bussy in his Histoire amoureuse des Gaules.


The Château de Bussy-Rabutin is situated near Montbard in a little wooded valley in the Auxois region of France. It is open every day except Monday and some holidays.

For more information, visit the following websites:

Bussy-Rabutin: Les Grandes Capitaines
Center of National Monuments: Bussy Rabutin
Burgundy Today: Bussy Rabutin

Photo, public sign for town of Nogaret

Generation 5

Portrait, Bernard de Nogaret de la Valette, le duc de la Valette
Bernard de Nogaret de la Valette, le duc de la Valette

BERNARD DE NOGARET DE LA VALETTE was born on 18 March 1592 at Angoulême, France. He was named after his paternal uncle. He was called "La Valette", and from 1622-1631 he was the duc de la Valette. Upon the death of his elder brother he became the 8th Comte de Candale. Through his mother, he could also claim the English title of Earl of Kendal, originally granted to his ancestor John de Foix in 1446.

He was heir to the title "duc d'Épernon" since his elder brother had inherited a title from their mother. Bernard became the duc d'Épernon in 1642 when his father died.


At the age of thirty, Bernard married, on 12 December 1622, at Lyon, France, GABRIELLE-ANGÉLIQUE DE BOURBON, called Mademoiselle de Verneuil.


Gabrielle was born on 21 January 1603 at Paris, France. She was the illegitimate daughter of King Henri IV and his mistress, Catherine Henriette de Balzac, the Marquise de Verneuil.


Upon her marriage, King Henri IV legitimized her birth.

Gabrielle-Angélique died on 24 April 1627 at the age of twenty-four at Metz, France, just after the birth of her son, Louis-Charles Gaston. Some say Bernard poisoned her.

Acacia hand graphic


As well as his father, Bernard chose a military career.


Also like his father, Bernard was Governor of Guienne. He fought at the sieges of Saint-Jean-d'Angély and of Royan (1621) and at the attack of the pas de Suse (1629).


On 15 May 1633, Bernard was installed as a chevalier (knight) in the Ordre du Saint Esprit, a chivalric order.

King Louis XIII créant en 1634
un chevalier du Saint-Esprit
by Abraham Bosse

For more on this subject, see my page on the king’s: Orders of Chivalry


As explained earlier, under the biography of Bernard’s father, there was animosity between the Nogarets de la Valette (father and son) and Cardinal Richelieu. In 1634, possibly on 28 November, Cardinal Richelieu arranged for Bernard to marry his niece, MARIE DU CAMBOUT DE COISLIN, under the pretext of bringing about a reconciliation.

Marie was born in 1614 into a very ancient and noble Breton family established on its fiefs at the mouth of the Loire river, near Nantes. The family descended from the dukes of Brittany.

A Curious Find

In Le grand dictionaire historique, ou Le mêlange curieux de l'histoire sacrée..., by Louis Moréri (1731), vol. 5, p. 53, states that Marie was “alliée en 1634” (allied with) Bernard. In contrast, her younger sister, Marguérite-Phillipe, was mariée (married) to her spouse.

This was not a happy union and there were no children. The marriage had been a political arrangement by Richelieu in an attempt to "reconcile" the two families, who had a long-standing hatred based on competition and jealousy.

There are some who, on their website genealogies, state [without citation], that Bernard divorced Marie. Without records it's unknown if a divorce really occurred; and if so, if it occurred prior to 1638, or later.

In 1642, at Loches, when the old duc died, she is reported to have been there with his grandchildren (La Valette’s children). Upon his death, her husband (or former husband), in exile, became the 2nd duc d'Épernon.

Marie died on 12 February 1691, at 76 years of age, in Val-de-Grâce, France.


Val-de-Grâce is a magnificent Baroque church (open for visitors on Saturdays & Sundays from 2–5pm), set just back from rue St-Jacques. Built by Anne of Austria as an act of pious gratitude following the birth of her first son in 1638, the church is a suitably awesome monument to the young prince who went on to reign as Louis XIV, with its dome and double-pedimented facade thrusting skywards. The old Benedictine convent adjoining the church to the south. I would presume, then, that she died in some relationship to the convent.

Official website: Val-de-Grâce, 15 Rue Val-de-Grâce, 75005 Paris. Métro: Port Royal, Vavin.


The duc de la Vallette was placed in command of a wing of the French Army. In 1635 he was charged by Louis XIII with restoring the order which had been disturbed by lifting of taxes and religious passions.


He fought in Picardy (1636), in Guyenne, and finally against the Spaniards.


Bernard repressed the Peasants' Revolt (révolte des croquants) in 1637.


Charged by the Prince de Condé in 1638 with leading the assault at the siege of Fontarabie, he refused, believing that the breach was not broad enough. He yielded his post to Vice-Admiral de Sourdis who launched an ill-fated attack which resulted in heavy losses.

Cardinal Richelieu had placed all of the Duke's sons in command of elements of the French Army in hopes of ridding himself of the duc d'Épernon's family. When Bernard survived the Battle of Fontarabie, the Cardinal sought to destroy him through accusations of treason.

Richelieu and King Louis XIII accused him of complicity with the enemy, and attributed the disaster to Bernard, who had nothing to do with it. In fact, he deserved praise for rejoining the remains of the army and leading it on to Bayonne.

Shortly thereafter, the "reconciliation" between Richelieu and Bernard failed.


Cardinal Richelieu, who had hated and been a rival of Bernard's father, capitalized upon the occasion of the defeat at Fontarabie and used Bernard as the instrument to destroy the influence of the duc d'Épernon in the French court.

A summons was sent to [Bernard] the duc de la Valette, "to come render his Majesty an account of his actions."

At the time of Bernard's so-called defeat at Fontarabie, the old duc was in Bordeaux. When the news reached him, he at once foresaw the disgrace his son would suffer at court and resolved to hurry toward him. Scarcely had he begun this journey when the King ordered him to turn back and go to his château at Plassac and not to move until his Majesty's further pleasure. Thus he was kept a prisoner in his own château.

The duc de la Valette knew Richelieu quite well, and prudently fled the country to escape sure death at the hands of the Crown.

Bernard’s two brothers tried to intercede for him, but without success. They both died within a very short time.


Bernard left behind his second wife, Marie du Cambout, and his grown children, now in their thirties. Bob Epperson's web lineage states that “records indicate” Bernard left France with thirteen servants. Not sure where he got that information, but considering Bernard's personality as portrayed in many books, fleeing with thirteen servants would be consistent.


The duc de la Valette being out of the country, Cardinal Richelieu had him tried, in absentia, in front of an extraordinary court chaired by the king himself. The court returned a sentence of death and the penalty was carried out in effigy on 6 June 1639.

The Execution in Effigy

A re-enactment of the execution is available to be seen on You Tube. Since it’s in French, I don't understand all of it; nevertheless I do believe the production presents several incorrect details:

  1. The title is the "duc d'Épernon"; the subtitle is "traitor of King Henri IV and murderer of vast numbers of people of Montauroux"; the date in the video is 1639.

    The duc d'Épernon in 1639 was not Bernard, but his father, Jean-Louis. Bernard was the duc de la Valette. Bernard did not become the duc d’Épernon until 1641, after his father died.

  2. Jean-Louis, the duc d’Épernon, was the close advisor to King Henri IV in 1610. Though he may have been complicit in the assassination of the king, he was never accused.

    On the other hand, Jean-Louis's son, Bernard, had been accused -- of treason (Battle of Fuenterrabía, 1638); and a penalty of death had been imposed upon him. It is more likely, then, that in 1639, the subject of any burning in effigy, to signify the carrying out of a death sentence, would have been Bernard, who had been sentenced to death, and not his father, the duc, who had not been sentenced to death.

    Secondly, why would anyone perform a death-sentence effigy of someone who was present in France (Jean-Louis, the duc)? Effigies are performed when the ‘accused’ is not present (the son, Bernard).

    The bottom line is:

    (1) the filmed re-enactment of this effigy burning was intended to be Bernard, the duc de la Valette, who was out of the country at the time.

    (2) the trumped-up conviction and the execution in effigy had nothing to do with King Henri IV nor with the duc d'Épernon.

If anyone reading this knows French, would you please do me a favor: listen to the video and translate for me so I can know exactly what they are reading and saying. This genealogy would appreciate it greatly.

JMG Productions (in French):
the burning in effigy of “Le duc d'Épernon”

There is significant confusion and much unknown regarding the five years during which Bernard, duc de la Valette, was out of France. Did he marry a third wife? Did he have a child during this time? Where did he live during his time in exile? How did the name change from Épernon to Epperson? Who emigrated to Virginia in 1675: his son, or grandson? Where did the information come from? Who’s right?

My own discussion of the prominent, and conflicting, stories and web lineages are detailed on a dedicated page on this website. Check it out at:

French-American Transition


If Bernard did marry (or have a liaison with anyone), it was most likely ANTOINETTE FAUDOAS. Her name could alternatively have been Anne or Alice. She was born in 1597 in Sérillac, Gaure, France, the daughter of Jean Faudoas II, baron de Sérillac, and Brandelise Bouzet.

More about her, and the child she bore, presumed to be Bernard's, and their subsequent descendants are detailed elsewhere on this site.



Some years passed, and in 1642, while still out of France, Bernard's father died, which raised him to the title of (the 2nd) duc d'Épernon.


In 1643, after the death of Louis XIII, Bernard returned to France. The Parliament of Paris cancelled the judgement against him.

As had been his father, Bernard was appointed a Colonel General of the Infantry in the Ancien Régime:

  1. 1581-1642 – Jean Louis de Nogaret de La Valette, duc d'Épernon

  2. 1642-1661 – Bernard de Nogaret, duc d'Épernon

What Were Colonels General?

A Colonel General was an officer of the French army during the Ancien Régime, Napoleonic era and the Bourbon Restoration.

The positions were not military ranks, but rather offices of the crown. The position was first created under François I. The Colonels General served directly below the Marshals of France, and they were divided by their branch of service. By the end of the Ancien Régime, the Colonels General were of the Infantry, the Cavalry, the Dragoons, the Hussards, the Cent-Suisses and Grisons, and the Gardes Françaises.

Judging the position of Colonel General of the Infantry to be too powerful, Louis XIV suppressed the position in 1661 (the year of Bernard’s death), and only appointed Colonel Generals of honorific branches like the Colonel General of the Dragoons (created in 1668), the Colonel General of the Cent-Suisses and Grisons, who oversaw the Swiss regiments of the Maison du Roi, and the Colonel of the Gardes Françaises. The position was reinstated under Louis XV.


Most published works consulted indicate that Bernard de Nogaret de la Valette had a mistress, considered a life-long passion: “a middle-class woman named Ninon de Lartigue, who exerted absolute power over him and to whom he gave enormous sums of money.” About this woman, I have been able to find nothing.



While in England, Bernard, duc de la Valette, was honored with the Order of the Garter, under King Charles I in 1645. He was invested in 1645 as "Sir Bernard de Foix, Captal de Buch" (#442). Founded by Edward III of England in 1348, the Most Noble Order of the Garter is England's highest honor.

Photo, Badge of the Order of the Garter, England
The Order of the Garter, England
About 1640 (4.5 cm x 9.3 cm)
Victoria & Albert Museum no. 273-1869

England's highest honor, the Order of the Garter, also was bestowed upon Bernard; perhaps because he was a lineal member of England's dukes of Kendal. See my page on the kings' chivalric orders as relates this family.

There is an existing portrait showing Bernard walking alongside England's King Charles I who is on horseback. This might indicate that Bernard spent some time in London, versus continually hiding out in Wales, for instance.


Charles the First, King of England and the duke d'Epernon
Gravure by Bernard Baron, after a painting by Anton VanDyke
At the musée national du château de Pau

The only real question regarding the above gravure is that Bernard was not in possession of the title of duc d’Épernon until after his father died, in 1642. Yet this portrait bears his title as duke d’Épernon, walking beside England’s King Charles I, who died in 1642. Why would the portrait show Bernard as the duc d’Épernon before he was actually the duc ... unless this portrayal is meant to be the 1st duke, Bernard's father?

There is also a regal painting by Sir Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641) of the duc d'Épernon on horseback in the collection of the Earl of Pembroke, at Wilton House, Wiltshire, England. Be sure to go see this portrait when in England. I do not know if this painting is of Bernard, who spent years in England, or his father, the first duc.

Bernard received the following distinctions:
* Ordre de Saint-Michel (Order of Saint Michel)
* Ordre du Saint-Esprit (Order of the Holy Spirit)
* Ordre de la Jarretière (Order of the Garter UK)


In 1648, now under King Louis XIV, in his minority, Bernard became Governor of Guyenne. That same year, he was responsible for transporting artillery of the Château du Hâ to arm the Château-Trompette to put down unrest resulting from the Parliament of Bordeaux's refusal to allow the departure of a shipment of corn, for fear of famine.

To read an article about King Louis XIV, click here (Wikipedia).


Bernard also served as Governor of Burgundy (capitol, Dijon) from 1654 to 1660, and Bresse, 70 km N-NE of Lyons, in the present department of Ain. He was the guest of honor in a glorious triumphant "entrance" into the city of Dijon, France, in 1656, most likely in conjunction with his governorship. He also was a guard of the theatre company of Charles Dufresne (whose most famous member was Molière).


Bernard, the duc d'Épernon, died on 25 July 1661 in Paris, France, at 69 years of age. Below is a picture (1840) of the street in which Bernard de Nogaret, le 2e duc d'Épernon lived at the time of his death. No telling what the street looked like two hundred years earlier, in 1661.

Ecuries du Roi, Rue St.Thomas du Louvre
Paris, 1840

Hôtel d'Épernon

The following was found on a website and pertains to "l'hôtel d'Épernon", which flagged my attention. In France, a hôtel is not a place taking lodgers. A "hôtel" was a home, or mansion.

Rue Saint-Thomas-du-Louvre: l'hôtel que le duc d'Épernon avait récemment acquis de Mme de Chevreuse, et qui depuis a reçu et longtemps conservé le nom d'hôtel de Longueville.

L’acquisition de l’hôtel de Longueville, echange le 13 aout 1662 contre l’hôtel d’Épernon n116 (fig. 1, o et v, see p. 138), permit de poursuivre les condations de la facade principale jusqu’a l’angle nord-est au cours de la meme annee, tandis que le corps de logis sud et le pavillon central commencaient a etre eleves.

n116 – cites the sale of the l’hôtel d’Épernon, rue Saint-Thomas-du-Louvre, qui venait d’etre achete. La transaction fut reglee le 13 aout suiant par-devant notaires (Arch. Nat., Minutier central, XCVI, 80).

See Bibliothèque de l’école des chartes, by Société de l’école des chartes (France), Vol. 15, p. 170. A journal dedicated to the study and use of medieval manuscripts.

The duc’s body was interred after 25 July 1661 in the church St. Blaise at Cadillac, France. To view my page about the family tomb, click: Épernon Family Tomb.

Bernard's peerage became extinct upon his death in 1661. The dukedom was sold to Pardaillian-Gondrin, seigneur de Savignac. The title of duc d'Épernon was borne by the families of Goth and of Pardaillan.



  1. Ann-Louise Christine de Foix de la Valette was born in 1623 at Metz, Messin, France. She died 22 August 1701 at 78 years of age, at the Convent at Faubourg St-Jacques, Paris, France. A letter addressed to "Mme d'Epernon, Prieure des Carmélites du Faubourg Saint-Jacques," by Jacques Bénigne Bossuet, is reproduced on page 320 of Oeuvres complètes de Bossuet (Vol. 12). You can see this letter using Google Books (see below).

  2. Possibly Margaret de la Valette; b: 1625. [Some biographies list this child.]

  3. Louis-Charles Gaston de Nogaret, duc de Candale, was born in Metz, Messin, France, on 14 April 1627. His mother died as a result of this birth. Louis-Charles died, at 31 years of age, in 1658 (possibly 28 January) in France. Il n'a qu'une fille qui se fait carmélite. Il passe pour un séducteur.

    On 16 September 1652, the duc de Candale received a commission to raise a regiment of cavalry to serve the army of Catalogne. In 1655 he was with the army of Picardy. The duc was killed at Lyon on 2 January 1658.

Portrait, Louis-Charles Gaston de Nogaret, duc de Candale




Bent, Samuel Arthur. Short Sayings of Great Men with Historical and Explanatory Notes (James R. Osgood & Co., 1882). On "You are going up, I am coming down."

Chartier, Jean-Luc. Le Duc D'Épernon, 1554-1642, Tome I: L'archimignon, Tome II: Le presque-roi. Société des Écrivains, 1999. ISBN 2-84434-013-X.

Girard, Guillaume. Histoire de la vie du duc d’Espernon. 1st ed.; reprinted at Rouen: T. Jolly (1663) in 3 vols. For a more recent biography see Nouvelle biographie générale, cit.

Huguenot Society of London Publications. British 942.1/L1, B4h. Volume 26 (7 August 1717) pp. 40, 55; and Volume 27 (1711) p. 107. On the children of John Epernon & Sara Fondan Remon.

Larcade, Véronique. Jean-Louis Nogaret de La Valette, duc d'Épernon (1554-1642): une vie politique, thèse de doctorat sous la direction d'Yves-Marie Bercé (Paris: Sorbonne, 1995).

Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh, ed. Burke's Royal Families of the World, Vol 1: Europe & Latin America. (London, U.K.: Burke's Peerage Ltd, 1977) p. 85.
On Bernard de Nogaret de La Valette and Gabrielle-Angélique de Bourbon (de Verneuil).

Mouton, Léo. Le duc et le roi: d'Épernon, Henri IV, Louis XIII and Un demi-roi, le duc d'Épernon (Paris: Perrin, 1924) in 8°, XII.

Tierchant, Hélène. Le Duc d'Épernon (Pygmalion, 2002). ISBN 2-85704-732-0.


Re: Anne-Louise Christine de Foix de la Valette (1623-1701), daughter of Bernard de Nogaret de la Valette. Bossuet, Jacques Bénigne. Oeuvres complètes de Bossuet, Vol. 12, p. 320.
A letter addressed to "Mme d'Epernon, Prieure des Carmélites du Faubourg Saint-Jacques.” The book is available on Google.

Re: Anne-Louise Christine de Foix de la Valette (1623-1701), daughter of Bernard de Nogaret de la Valette. Ricord, F. W. The Youth of Madame de Longueville or New Revelations of Court and Convent (New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1854). The book is available on Google.


Re. Bernard De Valette Defoix Nogaret (1592-1661): Thomas E. Rogers Home Page, on
The genealogy descends to our David Eppersons.

Bordeaux Tourism.

Château de Caumont.

Château de Versailles (château website).

Costa, Georges. “The Grave of the first Earl of Épernon in the Minime Convent at Cazaux”. Mémoires de la Société Archéologique du Midi de la France, Tome LII (1992).

Dictionnaire de la noblesse, contenant les genealogies, l’histoire etc.. By François Alexandre, Aubert de La Chesnaye-Desbois, etc.
Contains lineage of Bernard de Nogaret de la Valette (1553-1592). See p. 55 for Bernard de Nogaret (d. 1592), Seigneur de la Vallette, Amiral de France, mar. Jeanne, dtr. of René de Batarnay.

Épernon, Bernard de Nogaret de La Valette de Foix, duc d' Benigne, Griguette. Les armes triomphantes de son altesse, monseigneur, le duc d' Espernon. Pour le sujet de son heureuse entrée faite dans la ville de Dijon, le huictième jour du mois de may, mil sèx cens cinquante six. [Signé: Les maire, échevins et syndics de la ville de Dijon.] Dijon: Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Arts du spectacle, 4-RA4-276 (8 May 1656). Catalogue. Link to the book.

Epernon, France, and Outlying Area. Google Map.

Épernon: Online Encyclopedia. Originally appearing in Encyclopedia Britannica Vol. 9 (1911) p. 669.

Epperson Database (by Bob Epperson): Bob Epperson.
This is my lineage source of choice. Much information on Mr. Epperson's website was culled from Vaughn E. Epperson's data submitted to the LDS Library in Salt Lake City, UT. Link #2.

Epperson Database (by Elaine Henley): All of our Roots and Branches.
Database of Elaine Hensley; on Bernard de Nogaret de la Valette.

Epperson Database (by Lisa Fillers): Jean-Louis de Nogaret de la Valette - duc d'Épernon.
Good article in Helium.

Epperson Database (by Carolyn Kimbrell): Epperson-Clark Family Website. Link to the Epperson Lineage Chart.

French Kings Henri III, Henri IV, Louis XIII, and Louis XIV.

Guillaume de Nogaret. Catholic "New Advent" article.

Henriette d'Entragues and her Children (photos and text, in French).

** The Life of the Duc d’Epernon and His In-Laws. ** A very interesting website. Found when searching for Catherine de Nogaret de la Valette.

Lettre de la Royne Mere, envoyee au Roy. Loche, 26 février 1619, troisième lettre du duc d'Epernon au roi, mémes lieu et date. Bibliothèque nationale de France, FC156-08.

Lettre de la Royne Mere, envoyee au Roy, Loche, 26 février 1619, troisième lettre du duc d

White Family Ancestry and related clans (on Rootsweb).

About Catherine and Henri de Joyeuse

Catherine de Nogaret de la Valette (Geneanet).

Catherine de Nogaret [de Joyeuse]: Une Statue de Catherine de Nogaret.

Henriette Catherine de Joyeuse.

Henri de Joyeuse, from the Catholic publication New Advent, a very good online article about his life.

Henri de Joyeuse, comte du Bouchage (Wikipedia).


Bernard de Nogaret de La Valette d'Épernon.

Cardinal Richelieu

Catherine d'Medici, mother of Henri III

Chateau de Plassac


François Ravaillac, assassin of King Henri III, 1610

French Wars of Religion.

Henriette Catherine de Joyeuse, princesse of Joinville (1641 to 1654). She had married into the House of Guise.


Jean de Grailly, Captal de Buch.

Jean-Louis de Nogaret de La Valette (in English).

Jean-Louis de Nogaret de La Valette (in English).

Jean-Louis de Nogaret de la Valette (in French).

Les Mignons
The article is very harsh as to the mignons of Henri III, as well it should be, I think. As for our Jean-Louis, I'm quite certain he was a "favourite" in the political sense of the word, as described in the second Wikipedia article. He was not participating in homosexual activities with Henri III or others at his Court. He was married twice, had numerous mistresses and children. Portraits of him do not portray him as a fop as some other portraits of other "favorites" do. He also was very busy with responsibilities, duties, and the wars, to spend all his time in leisure activities around the king or at his Court.

Liste des chevaliers de l'ordre du Saint-Esprit.

Henri III of France

Roger I de Saint-Lary de Bellegarde (Wikipedia article).

Village of Épernon, France.

War of the Three Henries

Wives and Mistresses of King Henri IV


Mémoires de la Société archéologique de Touraine. Société archéologique de Touraine. Série in-80, Volume 45, pp. 175-76. See on Google. Published by the Société archéologique de Touraine, 1906. Original from the University of California.

Re: the marriage of Jean-Louis de la Valette, le duc d’Épernon:
La faveur du roi, by Nicolas le Roux. See pp. 480-482.

Re: La Saintonge: Jacques le marquis de Dampierre (marquis de). Paris: Alphonse Picard, editeur . La Saintonge et les seigneurs de Plassac: le duc d'Épernon, 1554-1642 (Libraire des Archives Nationales et de la Societe de l'École des Chartes, 1888). The book is also on Google: La Saintonge et les seigneurs de Plassac

Jacques Dampierre (marquis de). La Saintonge et les seigneurs de Plassac: le duc d'Epernon, 1554-1642 (Amazon, in French).


Bossuet, Jacques Bénigne Bossuet. Oeuvres complètes de Bossuet (Vol. 12) p. 320.
A letter addressed to "Mme d'Epernon, Prieure des Carmélites du Faubourg Saint-Jacques", in re. Ann-Louise Christine de Foix de la Valette (1623-1701). See under Google Books (below).

Epperson, John, death, 1689: See Vestry Book, St. Peters pp. 19, 20. John Epernon/Epecon/Epperson.

Epperson, Vaughn Elmo. Descendancy Chart and Family Group Records. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Library, Salt Lake City, Utah (1996 and 1997).

Epperson, John. Married Sara Fondan Remon, 1656, Channel Isles: See LDS Film B0394724, p. 86.
Epperson, John. Married Elizabeth Beard, 1671, Devon, England: See Batch M001832, Source 823684 F. [Is this at the LDS Library in Salt Lake City, Utah?]

Épernon, Jean Louis de Nogaret de La Valette, duc d'. Letter to Thomas Jefferson from Francis Adrian Van der Kemp, enclosing Synopsis of a Proposed Book, 18 February 1812. See Papers of Thomas Jefferson: Retirement Series 4:500-508 (esp. p. 504).

Épernon, Bernard. Caption: Bernard de Foix de La Valette, duc d'Épernon (mort en 1661), lieutenant général de Guyenne. Email:

The Youth of Madame de Longueville or New Revelations of Court and Convent, by F. W. RICORD (New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1854).


Book for sale, $16,500.

Extremely rare first and sole edition of this richly illustrated account of the triumphant entry of Bernard de Nogaret, duke of Épernon and governor of Burgundy, into Dijon in 1656, documenting the centralization of power in French politics in the context of the suppression of the Fronde revolts.

Burgundy had lived through its share of turmoil in the decades preceding Nogaret’s entry: There had been a vintner’s revolt, the invasion of the Imperial army, the siege of Saint-Jean-de-Losne (1636) and the revolt of the provincial nobility against Louis XIV (1638–1715) known as the Fronde. The chief victim of these had been the local population, and the frequent grateful references in the entrée’s program to subdued rebels and the restoration of peace may have contained more than a grain of sincerity.

Bernard de Nogaret (1592-1661) became duke of Épernon on the death of his father in 1642. Four years earlier, having been blaimed for the defeat at the battle of Fontarabie (1638) and condemned to death by Richelieu, he had fled to England where he was made Knight of the Royal Garter. Upon the death of Louis XIII, he returned to France, was pardoned, and given the governorship of Guienne and, from 1654-1660, of Burgundy. According to the Nouvelle biographie générale, “he distinguished himself only by his vices, his arrogance, and his rapaciousness.” He beat his first wife in public and humiliated his second by flaunting his bourgeois mistress who cost him a fortune. “He did not acquit himself gracefully in the infantry, of which he was colonel general, nor in government, except through the will of his mistress.” (XXXVII, 194).

Griguette, a lawyer, amateur dramatist (see below) and member of the city council who had been charged with organizing the festivities, begins by describing the chronology of events that led to the entry of the duke of Épernon. His emphasis on the dates – the announcement of the duke’s visit came a mere three weeks before the event – hints at the justified pride he took in the city organizing such an elaborate welcome in so little time.

The remainder of the book is organized around the plates depicting the ephemeral architecture for the duke’s entry, with lengthy descriptions and explanations of their iconography following the images. The designs for these were made by Jean Godran, another Dijon lawyer and evidently talented draughtsman. The first four plates show a “petite decoration” erected at the city entrance, a first arch representing the love of the people of Dijon, a second arch dedicated to the generosity of the duke, and a third arch celebrating his victory over the rebellious forces. The latter is topped by a portrait of the duke.

There follow two very long fold-out plates (110 cm unfolded) giving two views of a victory column adorned with scenes from the duke’s life. Next is a depiction of the fourth arch or portique celebrating the “triumph and heroic virtues of his highness.” Eight plates show the allegorical statues representing Labor, Diligence, Faith, Equity, Prudence, Magnanimity, Counsel, and Arms in more detail. The final folding plate shows a spectacular firework. The work ends with the words to two songs in honor of Louis XIV and the duke of Epernon which were composed by Griguette and performed by the populace of Dijon on the evening of the event.

According to the author, 8000 inhabitants of Dijon marched under arms during the duke’s entree – nearly half the city’s population. “Even though the latter figure was clearly exaggerated, it is clear that a large number of the city’s adult males took part in each entry procession. And while many of those in the procession would not have known the classical references upon which the allegorical archways were based, they would have understood the general meaning of the images they encountered. (Michael Breen, “Addressing la ville des dieux: entry ceremonies and urban audiences in seventeenth-century Dijon” Journal of Social History, Winter 2004).

The duke of Épernon was the subject of a three-volume biography which was translated into English and ran into several editions. (First edition : Girard, Guillaume. Histoire de la vie du duc d’Espernon. 3 vols. Rouen, T. Jolly, 1663.) For a more recent biography see Nouvelle biographie générale, cit.

Griguette also wrote a tragedy and a book of portraits of illustrious figures. (La mort de Germanic Caesar; tragédie, Dijon, Chez Pierre Palliot, 1646 and Éloges des hommes illustres peints en la galerie du Palais Royal, Dijon, P. Palliot, 1646).

xxx Do word search in google on “Mme de Chevreuse, Rue Saint-Thomas-du-Louvre”.

Another hôtel de Duc d'Épernon

Cet hôtel particulier du XVIème siècle, reçut de nombreuses fois le Duc d'Épernon (1554/1642), nommé gouverneur de Provence de 1592 à 1596. Il possède en son sein des escaliers datant de la Renaissance, à balustres, en stuc, avec un puits de lumière et une porte d’entrée à bossage avec écusson.

This mansion of the sixteenth century, was many times the Duke of Epernon (1554/1642), appointed governor of Provence from 1592 to 1596. Il possède en son sein des escaliers datant de la Renaissance, à balustres, en stuc, avec un puits de lumière et une porte d'entrée à bossage avec écusson. It has within it the stairs from the Renaissance, with balustrades, stucco, with a skylight and a door entry with shield boss.

Brignoles, France


Williams, Hugh Noel. A princess of intrigue: Anne Geneviève de Bourbon, duchesse de ..., Vol. 1, p. 138. At Google Books.
xx Boureau, Alain. The lord's first night: the myth of the droit de cuissage. See pp. 96-97.

Galignani’s New Paris Guide (Paris: A. and W. Galignani and Co., 1846). The front matter has a lot of very interesting information about being out and about in Paris. See pp. 230-31: 3rd Arrondissement, St. Eustache.
Re. Hôtel des Postes on rue Jean Jacques Rousseau. This hotel had been built by the Duke d’Épernon.

** Guizot, Francois M., and Mme Henriette Elizabeth de Witt. The History of France from the earliest times to the year 1789. Vol. 4; pp. 22-26, and others. ** This is good.

Cemeteries of France, mostly gisants of the kings and queens.

Julg, Jean. Les évêques dans l'histoire de la France (2004) p. 264. ISBN 2740311354.

Maugier, George Maugier. "Kin", who emigrated in 1675 (from the Channel Isle of Jersey and also of Hampshire, old England) to Newbury, America. He sold property to Peter Valett in 1674/5). This is most likely about John Epecon (Epperson). Check this at the LDS Family History Library, Salt Lake City, UT. British Film #0394727, pp. 96ff.

Parker, Geoffrey. Europe in crisis, 1598-1648, p. 82. Availabile at Google Books.

St. Peter's Parish (Virginia). Vestry Book (4 May 1698). See p. 20, "posessioning group". On John Epecon (Epernon/Epperson).

** Vaughan, Robert. The British quarterly review (Vols. 59-60) pp. 216-17 (esp. 216). ** This is good.


Brinkman, Edna Epperson. The Story of David Epperson and His Family of Albemarle County, Virginia (1933).
Brinkman quotes: Mr. Girard, Sec'y. to the Duke of Épernon, The History of the Life of the Duke of Espernon (1659); translated into English by Charles Cotton (1670).

Chartier, Jean-Luc Chartier. Le duc d’Epernon - L’Archimignon. Société des Écrivains (1999). ISBN 284434013X.

Epperson, Vaughn Elmo. Descendancy Chart and Family Group Records. LDS Library, Salt Lake City, UT. Information provided 1996 and 1997.

Tierchant, Hélène. Le duc d’Epernon. Pygmalion (2002). ISBN 2857047320.


Browning, William Shipton. History of the Hugenots: from 1598 to 1838. Google Books: Epernon.

Collins, James B. The state in early modern France. Google books: Epernon.

Extraits de la lettre que Jean-Louis de Nogaret de La Valette adresse a Metz le 23 novembre 1618 au "Reverend Pere Claude de Saint-Bernard, prebstre de la Congregation des Feuillans, a Paris".

Louis de Nogaret de la Valette, Archbishop of Toulouse. Dictionnaire historique et biographique des généraux français, depuis le onzième siècle jusqu'en 1820 (Wikipedia).

Mistress of Bernard: Ninon de Lartigue (Wikipedia: Bernard: in French)

** Yonge, Charlotte Mary. Cameos from English History: England & Spain. Google Books: Epernon. See p. 239. **This is a good one.

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