After Marguérite’s father was killed at Sommières in 1572, she inherited her family's possessions, including castles. This includes possessions passed to her father by his brother. These, according to the times, now became the property of her husband.
Marguérite imprisoned her sister, Françoise de Foix-Candale, dit «Madame de Candale» (d. 1649), and forced her to become a nun. One wonders why she did this: to prevent her sister from inheriting family possessions? To make sure she didn’t have to provide a handsome dowry for her younger sister? This was quite often the case with younger family members.
Marguérite de Foix-Candale died 23 September 1593 at Angoulême.
The year he was appointed the First Gentleman of the King's Chamber, Jean-Louis de Nogaret de la Valette, the duc d’Épernon, was also tapped as a chevalier of the Ordre du Saint Esprit, in the fifth promotion, on 21 December. He was also a Colonel General of the French Infantry.
The duc (a Catholic) was very loyal to King Henri III (also a Catholic), and was very opposed to the Protestant Henri of Navarre becoming the next king. Henri III was assassinated in 1589, and Navarre did become King Henri IV. I’ve prepared a page on the:
Now Jean-Louis attempted to install an independent government in Provence, which attempt failed. The duc was obliged to submit himself to King Henri IV, which he did. But he had not forgiven or forgotten.
Jean-Louis maintained an official mistress named Diane d'Estrées. She was the sister of King Henri IV’s mistress, Gabrielle d'Estrées. I’ve prepared a special page about these sisters. Click the link:
Family Ties That Bind
There was another family relationship between the Nogarets de la Valette and King Henri IV, involving another of the king's mistresses:
King Henri IV and his mistress, Henriette de Balzac d'Entragues, the Marquise de Verneuil, had a daughter, Gabrielle-Angélique de Bourbon (known as Mademoiselle de Verneuil), who married Bernard de Nogaret de la Valette [hereafter La Valette]. Her birth was legitimized. You will read about the d’Entragues/Verneuils below.
Also, check out my page on the relationship between the duc d’Épernon and the French kings during his lifetime:
King Henri IV was assassinated in 1610. Épernon was under suspicion of complicity in the assassination; this was also true regarding others close to the king. Read the page I’ve prepared on the:
THE THREAT AND RIVAL
After the death in 1610 of King Henri IV, the duc played a large role in getting Henri's widow, Marie d'Medici, appointed as Regent. As a result he exercised a considerable influence upon the government.
Cardinal Richelieu, who also wanted to be in charge, found in Épernon a rival whom he could not subdue. He wanted neither Épernon nor Marie d'Medici in his way.
Épernon was named military Governor of Guienne.
In the southwest of France, where he was living so-called quietly as the Governor of Guienne, the relationship between Épernon, and Henri de Sourdis (brother and successor of Cardinal François de Sourdis), led to a public altercation in which Épernon struck Sourdis. Furious, Sourdis demanded the duc's excommunication.
Meanwhile, Cardinal Richelieu had arranged for Jean’s son, La Valette, to marry his niece, Marie du Cambout, under the pretext of bringing about a reconciliation.
Further bad feelings were engaged with Cardinal Richilieu when he believed that La Valette had been conspiring (along with his elder brother the Count de Caumont and Candale) and taking counsel from the Huguenots, and even accused them of such. This was during the Peasants' Revolt (Révolte des Croquants).
Cardinal Richelieu, life-time rivals of the old duc, wanted to rid himself of Épernon and his sons, and had put them all in the command of various sections of the army.
In 1638, La Valette, charged with leading the siege of Fontarabie, declined, yielding his post to Vice-Admiral de Sourdis who launched an ill-fated attack which resulted in heavy losses. Richelieu and the king accused La Valette of treason.
Épernon gave up his post at Guienne, and was ordered to his château at Plassac. The old duc advised La Valette not to try to come to him at Plassac.
Soon after, La Valette went into exile, and his elder brother (Count de Caumont and Candale), was stricken with a malady and died suddenly. And then, youngest brother, the Cardinal, "fell into a melancholy that put him at last into a desperate disease. The beginning of this distemper was as light as it had been in that of the Duke of Candale, his brother, and the issue of it as fatal".
A conflicting account of the cardinal’s death is that portrayed by Guizot in his Histoire de France (Vol. 4). He stated that the Pope "refused the customary funeral rights to the Cardinal de la Valette who died fighting at the head of the Army of the king."
During all this mayhem, Épernon, was still being held a virtual prisoner at his château at Plassac. When he heard of the loss of his sons, he cried, "O, Lord, since thou hast reserved my old age to survive the loss of my three children be pleased withal to give me strength wherewith to support the severity of the judgments."
Three years later, he was ordered by the King, from Plassac to Loches, a desolate, most uncomfortable castle.
Jean Louis de Nogaret de la Valette, le duc d'Épernon, died in the Château de Loches in January, 1642, at the age of 88.
Only one source states he died in the dungeon of Loches. All other sources indicate he died in the château of Loches. I’ve prepared a nice page about the place, and what it has meant to me:
With him at death were his grandchildren (La Valette's children) and their step-mother, Marie du Cambout. Upon his death, his son, La Valette, became the 2nd duc d'Épernon.
Please help with translation: "Tous les titres de cette branche passent aux La Valette sous condition que leur fils aîné relève nom et armes de Foix."
Jean-Louis de Nogaret de la Valette, 1st duc d'Épernon, and his duchess, Marguérite de Foix-Candale, are buried in a private tomb in their local church, called the Collégiale Saint-Blaise in Cadillac, France. Read more about the tomb on my page:
CHILDREN BY MARGUÉRITE DE CANDALE
By Mistress Diane d'Estrées
BERNARD NOGARET DE LA VALETTE
GO TO THE|
DE BOURBON-VERNEUIL FAMILY
Upon her marriage, King Henri IV legitimized her birth.
Gabrielle-Angélique died on 24 April 1627 at the age of twenty-four at Metz, France, just after the birth of her son, Louis-Charles Gaston. Some say Bernard poisoned her.
As well as his father, Bernard chose a military career.
Also like his father, Bernard was Governor of Guienne. He fought at the sieges of Saint-Jean-d'Angély and of Royan (1621) and at the attack of the pas de Suse (1629).
On 15 May 1633, Bernard was installed as a chevalier (knight) in the Ordre du Saint Esprit, a chivalric order.
For more on this subject, see my page on the king’s: Orders of Chivalry
As explained earlier, under the biography of Bernard’s father, there was animosity between the Nogarets de la Valette (father and son) and Cardinal Richelieu. In 1634, possibly on 28 November, Cardinal Richelieu arranged for Bernard to marry his niece, MARIE DU CAMBOUT DE COISLIN, under the pretext of bringing about a reconciliation.
Marie was born in 1614 into a very ancient and noble Breton family established on its fiefs at the mouth of the Loire river, near Nantes. The family descended from the dukes of Brittany.
A Curious Find
In Le grand dictionaire historique, ou Le mêlange curieux de l'histoire sacrée..., by Louis Moréri (1731), vol. 5, p. 53, states that Marie was “alliée en 1634” (allied with) Bernard. In contrast, her younger sister, Marguérite-Phillipe, was mariée (married) to her spouse.
This was not a happy union and there were no children. The marriage had been a political arrangement by Richelieu in an attempt to "reconcile" the two families, who had a long-standing hatred based on competition and jealousy.
There are some who, on their website genealogies, state [without citation], that Bernard divorced Marie. Without records it's unknown if a divorce really occurred; and if so, if it occurred prior to 1638, or later.
In 1642, at Loches, when the old duc died, she is reported to have been there with his grandchildren (La Valette’s children). Upon his death, her husband (or former husband), in exile, became the 2nd duc d'Épernon.
Marie died on 12 February 1691, at 76 years of age, in Val-de-Grâce, France.
Val-de-Grâce is a magnificent Baroque church (open for visitors on Saturdays & Sundays from 2–5pm), set just back from rue St-Jacques. Built by Anne of Austria as an act of pious gratitude following the birth of her first son in 1638, the church is a suitably awesome monument to the young prince who went on to reign as Louis XIV, with its dome and double-pedimented facade thrusting skywards. The old Benedictine convent adjoining the church to the south. I would presume, then, that she died in some relationship to the convent.
Official website: Val-de-Grâce, 15 Rue Val-de-Grâce, 75005 Paris. Métro: Port Royal, Vavin.
The duc de la Vallette was placed in command of a wing of the French Army. In 1635 he was charged by Louis XIII with restoring the order which had been disturbed by lifting of taxes and religious passions.
He fought in Picardy (1636), in Guyenne, and finally against the Spaniards.
Bernard repressed the Peasants' Revolt (révolte des croquants) in 1637.
Charged by the Prince de Condé in 1638 with leading the assault at the siege of Fontarabie, he refused, believing that the breach was not broad enough. He yielded his post to Vice-Admiral de Sourdis who launched an ill-fated attack which resulted in heavy losses.
Cardinal Richelieu had placed all of the Duke's sons in command of elements of the French Army in hopes of ridding himself of the duc d'Épernon's family. When Bernard survived the Battle of Fontarabie, the Cardinal sought to destroy him through accusations of treason.
Richelieu and King Louis XIII accused him of complicity with the enemy, and attributed the disaster to Bernard, who had nothing to do with it. In fact, he deserved praise for rejoining the remains of the army and leading it on to Bayonne.
Shortly thereafter, the "reconciliation" between Richelieu and Bernard failed.
Cardinal Richelieu, who had hated and been a rival of Bernard's father, capitalized upon the occasion of the defeat at Fontarabie and used Bernard as the instrument to destroy the influence of the duc d'Épernon in the French court.
A summons was sent to [Bernard] the duc de la Valette, "to come render his Majesty an account of his actions."
At the time of Bernard's so-called defeat at Fontarabie, the old duc was in Bordeaux. When the news reached him, he at once foresaw the disgrace his son would suffer at court and resolved to hurry toward him. Scarcely had he begun this journey when the King ordered him to turn back and go to his château at Plassac and not to move until his Majesty's further pleasure. Thus he was kept a prisoner in his own château.
The duc de la Valette knew Richelieu quite well, and prudently fled the country to escape sure death at the hands of the Crown.
Bernard’s two brothers tried to intercede for him, but without success. They both died within a very short time.
Bernard left behind his second wife, Marie du Cambout, and his grown children, now in their thirties. Bob Epperson's web lineage states that “records indicate” Bernard left France with thirteen servants. Not sure where he got that information, but considering Bernard's personality as portrayed in many books, fleeing with thirteen servants would be consistent.
The duc de la Valette being out of the country, Cardinal Richelieu had him tried, in absentia, in front of an extraordinary court chaired by the king himself. The court returned a sentence of death and the penalty was carried out in effigy on 6 June 1639.
The Execution in Effigy
A re-enactment of the execution is available to be seen on You Tube. Since it’s in French, I don't understand all of it; nevertheless I do believe the production presents several incorrect details:
There is significant confusion and much unknown regarding the five years during which Bernard, duc de la Valette, was out of France. Did he marry a third wife? Did he have a child during this time? Where did he live during his time in exile? How did the name change from Épernon to Epperson? Who emigrated to Virginia in 1675: his son, or grandson? Where did the information come from? Who’s right?
My own discussion of the prominent, and conflicting, stories and web lineages are detailed on a dedicated page on this website. Check it out at:
If Bernard did marry (or have a liaison with anyone), it was most likely ANTOINETTE FAUDOAS. Her name could alternatively have been Anne or Alice. She was born in 1597 in Sérillac, Gaure, France, the daughter of Jean Faudoas II, baron de Sérillac, and Brandelise Bouzet.
More about her, and the child she bore, presumed to be Bernard's, and their subsequent descendants are detailed elsewhere on this site.
BERNARD'S OTHER FAMILY
Some years passed, and in 1642, while still out of France, Bernard's father died, which raised him to the title of (the 2nd) duc d'Épernon.
In 1643, after the death of Louis XIII, Bernard returned to France. The Parliament of Paris cancelled the judgement against him.
As had been his father, Bernard was appointed a Colonel General of the Infantry in the Ancien Régime:
1581-1642 – Jean Louis de Nogaret de La Valette, duc d'Épernon
1642-1661 – Bernard de Nogaret, duc d'Épernon
What Were Colonels General?
A Colonel General was an officer of the French army during the Ancien Régime, Napoleonic era and the Bourbon Restoration.
The positions were not military ranks, but rather offices of the crown. The position was first created under François I. The Colonels General served directly below the Marshals of France, and they were divided by their branch of service. By the end of the Ancien Régime, the Colonels General were of the Infantry, the Cavalry, the Dragoons, the Hussards, the Cent-Suisses and Grisons, and the Gardes Françaises.
Judging the position of Colonel General of the Infantry to be too powerful, Louis XIV suppressed the position in 1661 (the year of Bernard’s death), and only appointed Colonel Generals of honorific branches like the Colonel General of the Dragoons (created in 1668), the Colonel General of the Cent-Suisses and Grisons, who oversaw the Swiss regiments of the Maison du Roi, and the Colonel of the Gardes Françaises. The position was reinstated under Louis XV.
Most published works consulted indicate that Bernard de Nogaret de la Valette had a mistress, considered a life-long passion: “a middle-class woman named Ninon de Lartigue, who exerted absolute power over him and to whom he gave enormous sums of money.” About this woman, I have been able to find nothing.
While in England, Bernard, duc de la Valette, was honored with the Order of the Garter, under King Charles I in 1645. He was invested in 1645 as "Sir Bernard de Foix, Captal de Buch" (#442). Founded by Edward III of England in 1348, the Most Noble Order of the Garter is England's highest honor.
The Order of the Garter, England
About 1640 (4.5 cm x 9.3 cm)
Victoria & Albert Museum no. 273-1869
England's highest honor, the Order of the Garter, also was bestowed upon Bernard; perhaps because he was a lineal member of England's dukes of Kendal. See my page on the kings' chivalric orders as relates this family.
There is an existing portrait showing Bernard walking alongside England's King Charles I who is on horseback. This might indicate that Bernard spent some time in London, versus continually hiding out in Wales, for instance.
Charles the First, King of England and the duke d'Epernon
Gravure by Bernard Baron, after a painting by Anton VanDyke
At the musée national du château de Pau
The only real question regarding the above gravure is that Bernard was not in possession of the title of duc d’Épernon until after his father died, in 1642. Yet this portrait bears his title as duke d’Épernon, walking beside England’s King Charles I, who died in 1642. Why would the portrait show Bernard as the duc d’Épernon before he was actually the duc ... unless this portrayal is meant to be the 1st duke, Bernard's father?
There is also a regal painting by Sir Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641) of the duc d'Épernon on horseback in the collection of the Earl of Pembroke, at Wilton House, Wiltshire, England. Be sure to go see this portrait when in England. I do not know if this painting is of Bernard, who spent years in England, or his father, the first duc.
Bernard received the following distinctions:
* Ordre de Saint-Michel (Order of Saint Michel)
* Ordre du Saint-Esprit (Order of the Holy Spirit)
* Ordre de la Jarretière (Order of the Garter UK)
In 1648, now under King Louis XIV, in his minority, Bernard became Governor of Guyenne. That same year, he was responsible for transporting artillery of the Château du Hâ to arm the Château-Trompette to put down unrest resulting from the Parliament of Bordeaux's refusal to allow the departure of a shipment of corn, for fear of famine.
To read an article about King Louis XIV, click here (Wikipedia).
Bernard also served as Governor of Burgundy (capitol, Dijon) from 1654 to 1660, and Bresse, 70 km N-NE of Lyons, in the present department of Ain. He was the guest of honor in a glorious triumphant "entrance" into the city of
Dijon, France, in 1656, most likely in conjunction with his governorship.
He also was a guard of the theatre company of Charles Dufresne (whose most famous member was Molière).
Bernard, the duc d'Épernon, died on 25 July 1661 in Paris, France, at 69 years of age.
Below is a picture (1840) of the street in which Bernard de Nogaret, le 2e duc d'Épernon lived at the time of his death. No telling what the street looked like two hundred years earlier, in 1661.
Ecuries du Roi, Rue St.Thomas du Louvre
The following was found on a website and pertains to "l'hôtel d'Épernon", which flagged my attention. In France, a hôtel is not a place taking lodgers. A "hôtel" was a home, or mansion.
Rue Saint-Thomas-du-Louvre: l'hôtel que le duc d'Épernon avait récemment acquis de Mme de Chevreuse, et qui depuis a reçu et longtemps conservé le nom d'hôtel de Longueville.
L’acquisition de l’hôtel de Longueville, echange le 13 aout 1662 contre l’hôtel d’Épernon n116 (fig. 1, o et v, see p. 138), permit de poursuivre les condations de la facade principale jusqu’a l’angle nord-est au cours de la meme annee, tandis que le corps de logis sud et le pavillon central commencaient a etre eleves.
n116 – cites the sale of the l’hôtel d’Épernon, rue Saint-Thomas-du-Louvre, qui venait d’etre achete. La transaction fut reglee le 13 aout suiant par-devant notaires (Arch. Nat., Minutier central, XCVI, 80).
See Bibliothèque de l’école des chartes, by Société de l’école des chartes (France), Vol. 15, p. 170. A journal dedicated to the study and use of medieval manuscripts.
The duc’s body was interred after 25 July 1661 in the church St. Blaise at Cadillac, France. To view my page about the family tomb, click: Épernon Family Tomb.
Bernard's peerage became extinct upon his death in 1661. The dukedom was sold to Pardaillian-Gondrin, seigneur de Savignac. The title of duc d'Épernon was borne by the families of Goth and of Pardaillan.
Ann-Louise Christine de Foix de la Valette was born in 1623 at Metz, Messin, France. She died 22 August 1701 at 78 years of age, at the Convent at Faubourg St-Jacques, Paris, France. A letter addressed to "Mme d'Epernon, Prieure des Carmélites du Faubourg Saint-Jacques," by Jacques Bénigne Bossuet, is reproduced on page 320 of Oeuvres complètes de Bossuet (Vol. 12). You can see this letter using Google Books (see below).
Possibly Margaret de la Valette; b: 1625. [Some biographies list this child.]
Louis-Charles Gaston de Nogaret, duc de Candale, was born in Metz, Messin, France, on 14 April 1627. His mother died as a result of this birth. Louis-Charles died, at 31 years of age, in 1658 (possibly 28 January) in France. Il n'a qu'une fille qui se fait carmélite. Il passe pour un séducteur.
On 16 September 1652, the duc de Candale received a commission to raise a regiment of cavalry to serve the army of Catalogne. In 1655 he was with the army of Picardy. The duc was killed at Lyon on 2 January 1658.
BERNARD'S OTHER FAMILY AND HIS
Bent, Samuel Arthur. Short Sayings of Great Men with Historical and Explanatory Notes (James R. Osgood & Co., 1882). On "You are going up, I am coming down."
Chartier, Jean-Luc. Le Duc D'Épernon, 1554-1642, Tome I: L'archimignon, Tome II: Le presque-roi. Société des Écrivains, 1999. ISBN 2-84434-013-X.
Girard, Guillaume. Histoire de la vie du duc d’Espernon. 1st ed.; reprinted at Rouen: T. Jolly (1663) in 3 vols. For a more recent biography see Nouvelle biographie générale, cit.
Huguenot Society of London Publications. British 942.1/L1, B4h. Volume 26 (7 August 1717) pp. 40, 55; and Volume 27 (1711) p. 107. On the children of John Epernon & Sara Fondan Remon.
Larcade, Véronique. Jean-Louis Nogaret de La Valette, duc d'Épernon (1554-1642): une vie politique, thèse de doctorat sous la direction d'Yves-Marie Bercé (Paris: Sorbonne, 1995).
Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh, ed. Burke's Royal Families of the World, Vol 1: Europe & Latin America. (London, U.K.: Burke's Peerage Ltd, 1977) p. 85.
On Bernard de Nogaret de La Valette and Gabrielle-Angélique de Bourbon (de Verneuil).
Mouton, Léo. Le duc et le roi: d'Épernon, Henri IV, Louis XIII and Un demi-roi, le duc d'Épernon (Paris: Perrin, 1924) in 8°, XII.
Tierchant, Hélène. Le Duc d'Épernon (Pygmalion, 2002). ISBN 2-85704-732-0.
Re: Anne-Louise Christine de Foix de la Valette (1623-1701), daughter of Bernard de Nogaret de la Valette.
Bossuet, Jacques Bénigne. Oeuvres complètes de Bossuet, Vol. 12, p. 320.
A letter addressed to "Mme d'Epernon, Prieure des Carmélites du Faubourg Saint-Jacques.” The book is available on Google.
Re: Anne-Louise Christine de Foix de la Valette (1623-1701), daughter of Bernard de Nogaret de la Valette.
Ricord, F. W. The Youth of Madame de Longueville or New Revelations of Court and Convent (New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1854). The book is available on Google.
Re. Bernard De Valette Defoix Nogaret (1592-1661): Thomas E. Rogers Home Page, on genealogy.com.
The genealogy descends to our David Eppersons.
Château de Versailles (château website).
Costa, Georges. “The Grave of the first Earl of Épernon in the Minime Convent at Cazaux”. Mémoires de la Société Archéologique du Midi de la France, Tome LII (1992).
Dictionnaire de la noblesse, contenant les genealogies, l’histoire etc.. By François Alexandre, Aubert de La Chesnaye-Desbois, etc.
Contains lineage of Bernard de Nogaret de la Valette (1553-1592). See p. 55 for Bernard de Nogaret (d. 1592), Seigneur de la Vallette, Amiral de France, mar. Jeanne, dtr. of René de Batarnay.
Épernon, Bernard de Nogaret de La Valette de Foix, duc d' Benigne, Griguette. Les armes triomphantes de son altesse, monseigneur, le duc d' Espernon. Pour le sujet de son heureuse entrée faite dans la ville de Dijon, le huictième jour du mois de may, mil sèx cens cinquante six. [Signé: Les maire, échevins et syndics de la ville de Dijon.] Dijon: Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Arts du spectacle, 4-RA4-276 (8 May 1656). Catalogue.
Link to the book.
Epernon, France, and Outlying Area. Google Map.
Épernon: Online Encyclopedia. Originally appearing in Encyclopedia Britannica Vol. 9 (1911) p. 669.
Epperson Database (by Bob Epperson): Bob Epperson.
This is my lineage source of choice. Much information on Mr. Epperson's website was culled from Vaughn E. Epperson's data submitted to the LDS Library in Salt Lake City, UT. Link #2.
Epperson Database (by Elaine Henley): All of our Roots and Branches.
Database of Elaine Hensley; on Bernard de Nogaret de la Valette.
Epperson Database (by Lisa Fillers): Jean-Louis de Nogaret de la Valette - duc d'Épernon.
Good article in Helium.
French Kings Henri III, Henri IV, Louis XIII, and Louis XIV.
Guillaume de Nogaret. Catholic "New Advent" article.
Henriette d'Entragues and her Children (photos and text, in French).
** The Life of the Duc d’Epernon and His In-Laws. ** A very interesting website. Found when searching for Catherine de Nogaret de la Valette.
Lettre de la Royne Mere, envoyee au Roy. Loche, 26 février 1619, troisième lettre du duc d'Epernon au roi, mémes lieu et date. Bibliothèque nationale de France, FC156-08.
White Family Ancestry and related clans (on Rootsweb).
About Catherine and Henri de Joyeuse
Catherine de Nogaret de la Valette (Geneanet).
Catherine de Nogaret [de Joyeuse]: Une Statue de Catherine de Nogaret.
Henri de Joyeuse, from the Catholic publication New Advent, a very good online article about his life.
Henri de Joyeuse, comte du Bouchage (Wikipedia).
François Ravaillac, assassin of King Henri III, 1610
Henriette Catherine de Joyeuse, princesse of Joinville (1641 to 1654). She had married into the House of Guise.
Jean-Louis de Nogaret de La Valette (in English).
Jean-Louis de Nogaret de La Valette (in English).
Jean-Louis de Nogaret de la Valette (in French).
The article is very harsh as to the mignons of Henri III, as well it should be, I think. As for our Jean-Louis, I'm quite certain he was a "favourite" in the political sense of the word, as described in the second Wikipedia article. He was not participating in homosexual activities with Henri III or others at his Court. He was married twice, had numerous mistresses and children. Portraits of him do not portray him as a fop as some other portraits of other "favorites" do. He also was very busy with responsibilities, duties, and the wars, to spend all his time in leisure activities around the king or at his Court.
Roger I de Saint-Lary de Bellegarde (Wikipedia article).
Mémoires de la Société archéologique de Touraine.
Société archéologique de Touraine. Série in-80, Volume 45, pp. 175-76. See on Google. Published by the Société archéologique de Touraine, 1906. Original from the University of California.
Re: the marriage of Jean-Louis de la Valette, le duc d’Épernon:
La faveur du roi, by Nicolas le Roux. See pp. 480-482.
Re: La Saintonge:
Jacques le marquis de Dampierre (marquis de). Paris: Alphonse Picard, editeur . La Saintonge et les seigneurs de Plassac: le duc d'Épernon, 1554-1642 (Libraire des Archives Nationales et de la Societe de l'École des Chartes, 1888). The book is also on Google: La Saintonge et les seigneurs de Plassac
Jacques Dampierre (marquis de). La Saintonge et les seigneurs de Plassac: le duc d'Epernon, 1554-1642 (Amazon, in French).
Bossuet, Jacques Bénigne Bossuet. Oeuvres complètes de Bossuet (Vol. 12) p. 320.
A letter addressed to "Mme d'Epernon, Prieure des Carmélites du Faubourg Saint-Jacques", in re. Ann-Louise Christine de Foix de la Valette (1623-1701). See under Google Books (below).
Epperson, John, death, 1689: See Vestry Book, St. Peters pp. 19, 20. John Epernon/Epecon/Epperson.
Epperson, Vaughn Elmo. Descendancy Chart and Family Group Records. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Library, Salt Lake City, Utah (1996 and 1997).
Epperson, John. Married Sara Fondan Remon, 1656, Channel Isles: See LDS Film B0394724, p. 86.
Epperson, John. Married Elizabeth Beard, 1671, Devon, England: See Batch M001832, Source 823684 F. [Is this at the LDS Library in Salt Lake City, Utah?]
Épernon, Jean Louis de Nogaret de La Valette, duc d'. Letter to Thomas Jefferson from Francis Adrian Van der Kemp, enclosing Synopsis of a Proposed Book, 18 February 1812. See Papers of Thomas Jefferson: Retirement Series 4:500-508 (esp. p. 504).
Épernon, Bernard. Caption: Bernard de Foix de La Valette, duc d'Épernon (mort en 1661), lieutenant général de Guyenne. Email: email@example.com.
The Youth of Madame de Longueville or New Revelations of Court and Convent, by F. W. RICORD (New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1854).
Extremely rare first and sole edition of this richly illustrated account of the triumphant entry of Bernard de Nogaret, duke of Épernon and governor of Burgundy, into Dijon in 1656, documenting the centralization of power in French politics in the context of the suppression of the Fronde revolts.
Burgundy had lived through its share of turmoil in the decades preceding Nogaret’s entry: There had been a vintner’s revolt, the invasion of the Imperial army, the siege of Saint-Jean-de-Losne (1636) and the revolt of the provincial nobility against Louis XIV (1638–1715) known as the Fronde. The chief victim of these had been the local population, and the frequent grateful references in the entrée’s program to subdued rebels and the restoration of peace may have contained more than a grain of sincerity.
Bernard de Nogaret (1592-1661) became duke of Épernon on the death of his father in 1642. Four years earlier, having been blaimed for the defeat at the battle of Fontarabie (1638) and condemned to death by Richelieu, he had fled to England where he was made Knight of the Royal Garter. Upon the death of Louis XIII, he returned to France, was pardoned, and given the governorship of Guienne and, from 1654-1660, of Burgundy. According to the Nouvelle biographie générale, “he distinguished himself only by his vices, his arrogance, and his rapaciousness.” He beat his first wife in public and humiliated his second by flaunting his bourgeois mistress who cost him a fortune. “He did not acquit himself gracefully in the infantry, of which he was colonel general, nor in government, except through the will of his mistress.” (XXXVII, 194).
Griguette, a lawyer, amateur dramatist (see below) and member of the city council who had been charged with organizing the festivities, begins by describing the chronology of events that led to the entry of the duke of Épernon. His emphasis on the dates – the announcement of the duke’s visit came a mere three weeks before the event – hints at the justified pride he took in the city organizing such an elaborate welcome in so little time.
The remainder of the book is organized around the plates depicting the ephemeral architecture for the duke’s entry, with lengthy descriptions and explanations of their iconography following the images. The designs for these were made by Jean Godran, another Dijon lawyer and evidently talented draughtsman. The first four plates show a “petite decoration” erected at the city entrance, a first arch representing the love of the people of Dijon, a second arch dedicated to the generosity of the duke, and a third arch celebrating his victory over the rebellious forces. The latter is topped by a portrait of the duke.
There follow two very long fold-out plates (110 cm unfolded) giving two views of a victory column adorned with scenes from the duke’s life. Next is a depiction of the fourth arch or portique celebrating the “triumph and heroic virtues of his highness.” Eight plates show the allegorical statues representing Labor, Diligence, Faith, Equity, Prudence, Magnanimity, Counsel, and Arms in more detail. The final folding plate shows a spectacular firework. The work ends with the words to two songs in honor of Louis XIV and the duke of Epernon which were composed by Griguette and performed by the populace of Dijon on the evening of the event.
According to the author, 8000 inhabitants of Dijon marched under arms during the duke’s entree – nearly half the city’s population. “Even though the latter figure was clearly exaggerated, it is clear that a large number of the city’s adult males took part in each entry procession. And while many of those in the procession would not have known the classical references upon which the allegorical archways were based, they would have understood the general meaning of the images they encountered. (Michael Breen, “Addressing la ville des dieux: entry ceremonies and urban audiences in seventeenth-century Dijon” Journal of Social History, Winter 2004).
The duke of Épernon was the subject of a three-volume biography which was translated into English and ran into several editions. (First edition : Girard, Guillaume. Histoire de la vie du duc d’Espernon. 3 vols. Rouen, T. Jolly, 1663.) For a more recent biography see Nouvelle biographie générale, cit.
Griguette also wrote a tragedy and a book of portraits of illustrious figures. (La mort de Germanic Caesar; tragédie, Dijon, Chez Pierre Palliot, 1646 and Éloges des hommes illustres peints en la galerie du Palais Royal, Dijon, P. Palliot, 1646).
xxx Do word search in google on “Mme de Chevreuse, Rue Saint-Thomas-du-Louvre”.
Cet hôtel particulier du XVIème siècle, reçut de nombreuses fois le Duc d'Épernon (1554/1642), nommé gouverneur de Provence de 1592 à 1596. Il possède en son sein des escaliers datant de la Renaissance, à balustres, en stuc, avec un puits de lumière et une porte d’entrée à bossage avec écusson.
This mansion of the sixteenth century, was many times the Duke of Epernon (1554/1642), appointed governor of Provence from 1592 to 1596. Il possède en son sein des escaliers datant de la Renaissance, à balustres, en stuc, avec un puits de lumière et une porte d'entrée à bossage avec écusson. It has within it the stairs from the Renaissance, with balustrades, stucco, with a skylight and a door entry with shield boss.
Williams, Hugh Noel. A princess of intrigue: Anne Geneviève de Bourbon, duchesse de ..., Vol. 1, p. 138. At Google Books.
xx Boureau, Alain. The lord's first night: the myth of the droit de cuissage. See pp. 96-97.
Galignani’s New Paris Guide (Paris: A. and W. Galignani and Co., 1846). The front matter has a lot of very interesting information about being out and about in Paris. See pp. 230-31: 3rd Arrondissement, St. Eustache.
Re. Hôtel des Postes on rue Jean Jacques Rousseau. This hotel had been built by the Duke d’Épernon.
** Guizot, Francois M., and Mme Henriette Elizabeth de Witt. The History of France from the earliest times to the year 1789. Vol. 4; pp. 22-26, and others. ** This is good.
Cemeteries of France, mostly gisants of the kings and queens.
Julg, Jean. Les évêques dans l'histoire de la France (2004) p. 264. ISBN 2740311354.
Maugier, George Maugier. "Kin", who emigrated in 1675 (from the Channel Isle of Jersey and also of Hampshire, old England) to Newbury, America. He sold property to Peter Valett in 1674/5). This is most likely about John Epecon (Epperson). Check this at the LDS Family History Library, Salt Lake City, UT. British Film #0394727, pp. 96ff.
Parker, Geoffrey. Europe in crisis, 1598-1648, p. 82. Availabile at Google Books.
St. Peter's Parish (Virginia). Vestry Book (4 May 1698). See p. 20, "posessioning group". On John Epecon (Epernon/Epperson).
** Vaughan, Robert. The British quarterly review (Vols. 59-60) pp. 216-17 (esp. 216). ** This is good.
Brinkman, Edna Epperson. The Story of David Epperson and His Family of Albemarle County, Virginia (1933).
Brinkman quotes: Mr. Girard, Sec'y. to the Duke of Épernon, The History of the Life of the Duke of Espernon (1659); translated into English by Charles Cotton (1670).
Chartier, Jean-Luc Chartier. Le duc d’Epernon - L’Archimignon. Société des Écrivains (1999). ISBN 284434013X.
Epperson, Vaughn Elmo. Descendancy Chart and Family Group Records. LDS Library, Salt Lake City, UT. Information provided 1996 and 1997.
Tierchant, Hélène. Le duc d’Epernon. Pygmalion (2002). ISBN 2857047320.
Browning, William Shipton. History of the Hugenots: from 1598 to 1838. Google Books: Epernon.
Collins, James B. The state in early modern France. Google books: Epernon.
Extraits de la lettre que Jean-Louis de Nogaret de La Valette adresse a Metz le 23 novembre 1618 au "Reverend Pere Claude de Saint-Bernard, prebstre de la Congregation des Feuillans, a Paris".
Louis de Nogaret de la Valette, Archbishop of Toulouse. Dictionnaire historique et biographique des généraux français, depuis le onzième siècle jusqu'en 1820 (Wikipedia).
Mistress of Bernard: Ninon de Lartigue (Wikipedia: Bernard: in French)
** Yonge, Charlotte Mary. Cameos from English History: England & Spain. Google Books: Epernon. See p. 239. **This is a good one.
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